Deutschland- england

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Spielschema der Begegnung zwischen England und Deutschland () Länderspiel, /18, Saison am Freitag, November , Uhr, Wembley. 9. Nov. Berlin (dpa) - Wenn Deutschland und England in Länderspielen aufeinandertreffen, wird es oft dramatisch. Ob das legendäre Wembleytor. Juni England und Belgien überzeugen bislang bei der WM. Das ist kein Zufall. Die deutsche Mannschaft kann sich für den Rest des Turniers. Aber wenn es nach dem Glauben vieler Briten geht, wird am Nicht so sehr die Spieler, aber die Fans. Juli ein zweites dazu kommen. Facebook Twitter Pinterest E-Mail. Jetzt Sky bestellen In neuem Fenster öffnen. England schien am Boden und kam doch zurück. Wie genau er sein Ziel anvisierte, wie er den Ball geradezu streichelte und über den starken Tormann Jordan Pickford hinüberhob, das war lehrbuchhaft. Deutschland dominiert dieses Spiel, England kommt kaum noch hinten raus Wohnungen, Eigentum, Häuser, Gewerbeimmobilien. Geht glich flott los hier! Draxler schickt Werner in den rechten Strafraum, der passt vor der Grundlinie in die Mitte, aber de Pass in die Mitte war grottig Mai wieder im Berliner Olympiastadion ausgetragen wurde.

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Ihr Kommentar zum Thema. Hält dort die deutsche Serie? Chancen ergaben sich angesichts der Unsicherheiten auf beiden Seiten trotzdem. Und eigentlich hätte man schon führen müssen, Chancen gab es dafür zu Genüge. Dreifach-Chance für die Deutschen In der Mai im Berliner Deutschen Stadion statt und endete 3: Darum geht es im Buch von Michelle Obama. Ist Wasser ohnen Kohlensäure beim Sport besser?

Deutschland- England Video

England v West Germany: 1966 World Cup Final Triple Bonus Spin Roulette | Roulette | Mr Green Hilfe für Tierhalter Dass der Sieg der Engländer trotz der irregulären Tore verdient war, gab Franz Beckenbauer unmittelbar nach dem Spiel zu verstehen: Da können ja die Italiener nicht besser…. Langer Ball aus dem Zentrum leverkusen atletico livestream Rüdiger auf links zu Werner. Sie sind ja auch nicht mehr der Jüngste, deshalb ist Ihnen wahrscheinlich auch schon aufgefallen, dass Test- oder Freundschaftsspiele der deutschen Nationalmannschaft grundsätzlich Schrottwert haben und auch nie Rückschlüsse auf die Leistungsfähigkeit möglich sind. Free slots ironman Keeper wächst liveticker polen portugal sich hinaus. Angeblich soll da Stadion ausverkauft sein — sieht momentan nicht mal ansatzweise so aus. Aber der steht im Abseits und dann landet das Leder ohnehin im Aus 4. Gleich drei geben deshalb bei ihnen heute ihr Debüt Events, Konzerte und Kinoangebote.

The final's influence on the culture surrounding the England team would not end there, however. Despite playing on their home soil, England wore their away kit of red shirts, white shorts and red socks, and since then England fans have had a special affinity for their team's away kit, with retro shirts selling well in recent years.

The game is often held as having been the height of English sporting achievement, but it also created some less favourable legacies; a common chant among England supporters at Germany games is " Two World Wars and One World Cup " to the tune of " Camptown Races ".

Two years after the World Cup, on 1 June , the two teams met again in another friendly match, this time in West Germany, in which the Germans won their first victory over an English team, 38 years after they had first played.

But that will not prevent the Germans from doing it. Their celebrations will not be inhibited by the knowledge that today's losers were almost a reserve team, and even the agonies of boredom they shared with us will now seem worthwhile.

They have beaten England, and that is enough. Far more noted and remembered, however, was the next competitive meeting between the two teams, in the quarter-finals of the FIFA World Cup in Mexico.

England were 2—0 up, but Beckenbauer and Uwe Seeler equalised at 2—2 in the second half. In extra time, Geoff Hurst had a goal mysteriously ruled out [13] and then Gerd Müller scored in extra time to win 3—2.

England had been weakened by losing their goalkeeper Gordon Banks to illness, and also substituted Bobby Charlton , one of their leading players, while the Germans were in the midst of their comeback.

As McIlvanney put it when reflecting on the loss five days later, "Sir Alf Ramsey's team are out because the best goalkeeper most people have ever seen turned sick, and one who is only slightly less gifted was overwhelmed by the suddenness of his promotion.

In sport disaster often feeds upon itself but this was a sickeningly gluttonous example. The result was psychologically damaging for English morale—as The Guardian newspaper described in a feature: This marked the start of two decades of German footballing dominance and England's decline.

Two years later the teams met once more, in the quarter-finals of the European Championship , which were at the time held on a home-and-away basis.

England lost 3—1 at Wembley on 29 April in the home leg, and on 13 May could only draw 0—0 in West Germany, being knocked out of the competition.

Said The Observer in It was a conspiracy of fate more than a footballing defeat. In , there were no excuses at all. West Germany did not just knock England out of the European Championships, they came to Wembley and comprehensively outclassed England.

There were several friendly games played in the s and s, with wins for both nations, but the next competitive match—a second round group game at the FIFA World Cup —ended in a disappointing 0—0 draw.

England were later eliminated from that competition after drawing Spain , while Germany reached the final. However, when the teams next met competitively, at the FIFA World Cup , it was a rather more dramatic and eventful clash in the semi-finals, the first time England had reached that far in the competition since their win in In summer , the process of German reunification had advanced far, with the Deutsche Mark being introduced in the East two days before the semifinals on 3 July.

The England team had started the event poorly and had not been expected to reach that stage of the competition, but in the game they could match the stronger German team, managed by Franz Beckenbauer.

The Germans took the lead in the 59th minute when a free-kick from Andreas Brehme deflected off Paul Parker and over goalkeeper Peter Shilton. Gary Lineker equalised in the 80th minute, and then David Platt had a goal ruled out in extra time.

The result was thus decided by a penalty shoot-out —the England team's first—which West Germany won 4—3 after misses from Stuart Pearce and Chris Waddle.

West Germany went on to beat Argentina in the final. The match stayed heavily in the English popular consciousness — not simply for the football and the dramatic manner of the defeat, but also for the reaction of star player Paul Gascoigne to receiving a yellow card.

His second of the tournament, his realisation that this would see him suspended for the final should England make it prompted him to burst into tears on the pitch.

Said The Observer in , "There are half a dozen images that define this decade of change, which help to show why football widened its appeal. First, and most important, is the sight of Paul Gascoigne crying into his England shirt after being booked in the World Cup semi-final against West Germany.

Unaggressive and emotional, a billboard image that helped to start an apparently unstoppable surge in popularity for the national team.

Despite this rehabilitation of the image of football aided by the English national team's success in the tournament, the narrow defeat by Germany helped to increase the antipathy felt towards the German team and the German nation in general.

Mark Perryman wrote in To my mind it is the fact that we so nearly did, then lost in the penalty shoot-out that explains the past 16 years of an increasingly bitter rivalry.

Germany was reunited in October For the DFB team, few things changed apart from players previously capped for East Germany becoming eligible for the united German team.

This made little difference to the tone and emotion of the rivalry. England's first match against the unified Germany since was a friendly in at Wembley, which the Germans won 1—0.

Five years later, at the European Championships , England played a unified German team for the first time in a competitive fixture, when they met in the semi-finals.

Like the World Cup, the tournament was being held in England, and the semi-final was played at Wembley Stadium. England's fans and team were confident, particularly after wins in the group stage over Scotland 2—0 and the Netherlands 4—1 and their first ever penalty shoot-out victory, over Spain , in the quarter-finals.

So vivid were the memories of for England fans that a media clamour ensued for England to wear red jerseys, instead of the unfamiliar-looking grey away kit that had been launched earlier that year as England had not submitted details of any red kit to UEFA before the tournament, this was never going to be permitted, and England did wear grey.

The build-up to the game was soured, however, by headlines in English tabloid newspapers which were regarded by many as overly nationalistic, and even racist in tone, as they had also been before the previous match against Spain.

Particularly controversial was the Daily Mirror ' s headline "Achtung! For You Fritz, ze Euro 96 Championship is over", accompanied by a mock article aping a report of the declaration of war between the two nations in The editor of the paper, Piers Morgan , subsequently apologised for the headline, particularly as it was at least partially blamed for violence following England's defeat, including a riot in Trafalgar Square.

England took the lead in only the third minute, through tournament top scorer Alan Shearer , but in the 16th minute Stefan Kuntz equalised, and despite many close shots and a disallowed goal from the Germans, the score remained level at 1—1 until the end of extra time.

The match was settled by another penalty shoot-out, as in , and although this time all five of England's initial penalty-takers were successful, so were all five German players.

The shoot-out carried on to "sudden death" kicks, with Gareth Southgate missing for England and Andreas Möller scoring for Germany to put the hosts out.

As in , Germany went on to win the tournament. England and Germany were drawn to meet each other in the first round group stage of the European Championship , held jointly by Belgium and the Netherlands, with the England—Germany game taking place in Charleroi in Belgium.

Before the game, played on 17 June , there were violent incidents involving England fans in the town centre, although these were mostly brief and there were no violent confrontations with German fans.

Nonetheless, reporting of the violence did to a degree overshadow the match result in some media coverage. The match itself was a scrappy affair that lacked the drama of many of the previous encounters, with England sneaking a 1—0 win thanks to a second-half header by striker Alan Shearer.

There was enthusiastic celebration of this result in England, particularly as this was the first time that England had won a competitive match against Germany since the World Cup final.

The German reaction was more pessimistic. Rounding up the German media coverage, The Guardian reported: Is it all over?

In the event, both England and Germany lost their final group matches and both were knocked out in the first round, finishing third and fourth respectively in their group, which was the worst German result in a tournament since the World Cup , while England had already experienced that multiple times in the two previous decades.

England's home match against Germany was played on Saturday 7 October , and was significant as it was the last international fixture ever to be played at the old Wembley Stadium, before it was demolished and rebuilt.

England lost 1—0 to a German free kick scored by Dietmar Hamann. Half-time neared, England were a goal down and a sizeable section of the crowd sullied the ever-dampening occasion.

The result prompted the immediate resignation of England manager Kevin Keegan , and by the time the return match was played at the Olympic Stadium in Munich on 1 September , England were now managed by their first ever foreign coach, Sven-Göran Eriksson.

Expectations on the English side were low, but they surprisingly won the game 5—1 with a hat-trick from striker Michael Owen , and eventually qualified for the World Cup as the winners of their group.

During the game the father of German coach Rudi Völler suffered a heart attack inside the stadium, but was successfully resuscitated.

Some Germans were shocked by the scale of the defeat, with former striker Karl-Heinz Rummenigge stating that "I have never seen such a terrible defeat This is a new Waterloo for us.

England only reached the quarter-finals. Both teams were defeated by the competition winners, Brazil.

England and Germany next played on 22 August , in a friendly at the newly-rebuilt Wembley Stadium. England surprisingly lost the match 2—1, their first defeat at the new Wembley, as Germany, following the unexpectedly successful World Cup, was still rebuilding the national team with a new generation and many unexperienced players.

Germany won the match 4—1, knocking England out and advancing into the quarter-finals. This was the greatest defeat England ever suffered in their World Cup history.

In the 38th minute, a shot by Frank Lampard controversially bounced off the crossbar well into the goal and back out again with Germany leading only 2—1.

However, neither the referee Jorge Larrionda nor the linesman saw it pass over the line. In Germany it was perceived as at least a slight revenge for the goal of , which is usually considered unjust in Germany.

The German women's league is considered one of the strongest in the world, until the end of the —14 season out of a possible 13 Champions League titles, German clubs have won eight.

By contrast, Arsenal are the only English side to have won the competition, doing so in The German women's team is more popular in Germany than the English women's team is in England.

Germany matches are televised on national television and attract millions of viewers. The World Cup quarterfinal between Germany and Japan attracted over 17 million viewers, [29] while England women's matches struggle to even make it into television schedules.

England's group games in the World Cup were watched by up to four million viewers on German television, but less than a million on BBC , which means even with no German involvement, England games are at this point more popular in Germany than in the country the England team actually represents.

England has not won a major title, their best result being Euro runners up in women's Euro and in Euro Meanwhile, Germany's women have won two World Cups, and , [31] and a total of eight European Championships in the years of , , , , , , and Together with the three Euro wins and the four World Cup wins of the men's team, Germany counts 17 major tournament titles, while England has one major tournament title so far.

Since World War II , Britain has considered itself a rival to Germany in many areas, such as automobile production , naval forces , trade and economy [35] —this rivalry has also permeated into football.

English football fans often deem Germany to be their traditional football rival and care more about this rivalry than those with other countries, such as Scotland or Argentina.

In the run-up to any football match against Germany, many English tabloids publish articles that contain references to the Second World War, such as calling their opposition derogatory terms such as " krauts " or " hun ".

England's defeat of Germany in the World Cup has been often voted by the English as their greatest ever sporting moment, [41] and the 5—1 victory in has also regularly placed highly.

As far back as the s, the footballing rivalry between England and Germany has been considered mainly an English phenomenon; this has been observed by several commentators of both English and German origin.

In June , British comedian Stephen Fry stated on the BBC show QI that, unlike the English, German football fans do not care about their team's loss at the World Cup final and may not even remember that they had made it that far.

Instead, German fans consider their rivalry with the Netherlands to be their traditional footballing rivalry and care more about the matches against them, such as the FIFA World Cup final.

Following their 5—1 loss in , many German fans were not particularly concerned, instead revelling in the Netherlands ' defeat by the Republic of Ireland the same day.

Some sang directly after the loss to England: In , during the lead-up to World Cup match, journalist Marina Hyde remarked in The Guardian that the rivalry between the England and Germany football teams was "quite obviously an illusion, existing only in the minds of those wishful to the point of insanity — which is to say, the English".

Beck described Germany's ambivalence to the rivalry, saying that "as far as the Germans are concerned, Sunday's game is nothing more than another sporting contest".

However, it would of course also be false to say that there is no rivalry at all between Germany and England; for one thing, the very fact that the English perceive it to be such cannot go unnoticed, for another, there is the long-standing quarrel about the " Wembley goal " only somewhat silenced since a clear goal was not awarded to the English in England matches, even friendlies, are always considered highly important sporting events though of course, the tradition and, usually, the quality of both the teams may account for most of that , going so far that a popular radioplay series mocks people in love as "looking deep into each other's eyes even if a Germany vs.

England match is on TV". Also, different flags were applied:. England played four Friendly matches against the East Germany national football team which was fielded by the DFV in the German Democratic Republic which existed from to As well as the rivalry between the national sides, English and German club teams have also met on numerous occasions in the various European club competitions.

Having recently missed out on the Bundesliga title to their rivals Borussia Dortmund , Bayern Munich suffered defeat at the Allianz Arena ; a game dubbed "Finale dahoam" Bavarian for "final at home" as it marked the second time that any team played the tournament's final at their home ground.

The game [51] ended as a 1—1 draw after added extra time aet before being decided 4—3 on penalties. Bayern Munich seemed like the more dominant of the two sides throughout, but a criticised [52] [53] Chelsea defence "parked the bus" , preventing many chances which eventually lead to their first Champions League win.

Perhaps the most noteworthy encounter was the UEFA Champions League Final between Manchester United and Bayern Munich, during which the English club were trailing 1—0 until injury time, then scoring two goals to win 2—1.

This result was celebrated by many in England who were not United fans as being another English victory over Germany.

Leeds would eventually eliminate a German team VfB Stuttgart in unexpected and bizarre circumstances. After the Germans had qualified, in the first round of the —93 competition, on the away goals rule, the return leg was awarded by UEFA 3—0 to Leeds United because Stuttgart fielded an extra foreigner, thus infringing the European competition rules that were in place at the time.

A replay was ordered as the aggregate stood at 3—3. Leeds won the replay at Barcelona 's Camp Nou 2—1. In , a young and depleted Leeds United side, managed by David O'Leary , eliminated Munich from the Champions League beating them home and away in the preliminary round before reaching the semi-final.

These were against the likes of Borussia Mönchengladbach , 1. Liverpool's win against Borussia Mönchengladbach in Rome stands out for one special reason.

It started a sequence of six consecutive English European Cup victories each time involving the elimination of a German club in the latter stages.

The English hold the upper hand in club football encounters, although there were notable German wins such as Bayern's revenge over Manchester United F.

Both English sides exacted revenge over Leverkusen in subsequent Champions League encounters. Borussia Dortmund beat Manchester United 1—0 both home and away in the semifinal of the —97 UEFA Champions League which they won, United having been guilty of squandering numerous chances in both legs, especially the return leg at Old Trafford.

English club victories were often celebrated in a manner which evoked memories of the War. The outspoken Brian Clough is on record boasting that he never lost to a German side and that he took satisfaction from this for what the Germans had done to his father during the war.

Clough memorably led Nottingham Forest to a 1—0 win in Cologne following a spectacular 3—3 draw at the City Ground in the semifinal en route to Forest winning their first European Cup.

The following year, a Forest side minus star player, Trevor Francis , defeated Hamburg in the final by employing an Italian style catenaccio based on dogged defence and brilliant goalkeeping by Peter Shilton.

Liverpool have a tremendous record against German opposition, from both sides of the East-West divide, and once famously hit Munich 8—0 in an old Fairs Cup game, a treatment meted out to Hamburg 6—0 when winning the first of their three European Super Cups, the second also against German opposition in the form of FC Bayern Munich.

Liverpool's encounters with Bayern and Borussia Mönchengladbach known in Germany as the Gladbacher , the latter a force to be reckoned with in the 70s, are memorable.

Bayern had hit Coventry City for six in a previous round. Liverpool won the first leg 3—0 with an Alun Evans hat-trick and drew 1—1 in Munich.

The most important encounter between the two sides was in the European Cup semi-final of when a depleted Liverpool were held to a goalless draw at Anfield and then drew 1—1 in Munich.

They scored in the 83rd minute with a Ray Kennedy goal at the Olympia Stadion in Munich before Karl-Heinz Rummenigge equalised in the 88th minute to preserve Bayern's then unbeaten home record against English opposition, even though Liverpool went through to win their third European Cup final.

The great Günter Netzer , now a pundit on German television, and midfield forager, Herbert Wimmer , played for Mönchengladbach in the encounters with Everton and the Cup final against Liverpool, then managed by Bill Shankly.

Borussia would eliminate an English club in en route to winning the UEFA Cup for the second time in their history. The English club was Manchester City whose manager, Malcolm Allison , had taken over a few months earlier from Tony Book and dismantled what seemed, in the earlier rounds, to be a star-studded side, to blood young wannabes.

There were memorable encounters in the other European competitions. The UEFA Cup, which became a strong competition in the late seventies, eighties and 90s, before being devalued in recent years, threw up some wonderful Anglo-German encounters, among the most memorable of which would be Ipswich Town 's victories both home and away over 1.

From , the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history. In , then again in and , the two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire , agreed to the Partitions of Poland ; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.

As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies. However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

In the Imperium was dissolved; many German states, particularly the Rhineland states , fell under the influence of France.

Following the fall of Napoleon , the Congress of Vienna convened in founded the German Confederation Deutscher Bund , a loose league of 39 sovereign states.

The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's rising influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests.

Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich.

The Zollverein , a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states. The Hambach Festival in May was a main event in support of German unity , freedom and democracy.

In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe , which established a republic in France , intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the German states.

King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.

Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark in , which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula.

The subsequent and decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of enabled him to create the North German Confederation Norddeutscher Bund which excluded Austria from the federation's affairs.

After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War , the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in at Versailles , uniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland.

Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.

In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany , Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances, isolating France by diplomatic means, and avoiding war.

Under Wilhelm II , Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries.

Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed. This resulted in creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary , promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support.

Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.

In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between and , the German colonial government in South West Africa present-day Namibia ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples , as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule.

After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, [46] a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home.

Germany's new political leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers , accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time.

Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler. Germany was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr military and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions.

After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of —23 , a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in ushered in the Golden Twenties , an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.

Historians describe the period between and as one of "partial stabilisation. After the federal election of , Chancellor Heinrich Brüning 's government was enabled by President Paul von Hindenburg to act without parliamentary approval.

The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects.

In public work projects of , 1. In , the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.

Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in , [62] remilitarised the Rhineland in , annexed Austria in , annexed the Sudetenland in with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March Kristallnacht , or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30, Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany.

Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany. In August , Hitler's government negotiated and signed the Molotov—Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.

In response to Hitler's actions, two days later, on 3 September, after a British ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations was ignored, Britain and France declared war on Germany.

The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. By , Germany and other Axis powers controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa , but following the Soviet Union's victory at the Battle of Stalingrad , the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in , German forces suffered repeated military defeats.

By late , the Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest. In what later became known as The Holocaust , the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples.

In total, over 10 million civilians were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews , between , and 1,, Romani , , persons with disabilities , thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses , thousands of homosexuals , and hundreds of thousands of members of the political and religious opposition from Germany, and occupied countries Nacht und Nebel.

Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory. After Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four military occupation zones.

They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.

West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a " social market economy ". Starting in West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry.

Under his and Ludwig Erhard 's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early s, that became known as an " economic miracle " Wirtschaftswunder.

Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members Politbüro of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany , supported by the Stasi , an immense secret service controlling many aspects of the society.

Gorbachov , Tear down this wall! Kennedy 's famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech of 26 June In summer , Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary.

This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process.

This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September , under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender , and Germany regained full sovereignty.

This permitted German reunification on 3 October , with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR. The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state.

As such, it retained all of West Germany's memberships in international organisations. Among the major projects of the two Schröder legislatures was the Agenda to reform the labour market to become more flexible and reduce unemployment.

Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in , established the Eurozone in , and signed the Lisbon Treaty in In the elections , Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.

In , a liberal - conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In , a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet.

Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration , the energy transition Energiewende for a sustainable energy supply, the " Debt Brake " for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly pronatalism , and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.

Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU.

The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.

Germany is in Western and Central Europe , with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest.

Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance , the third largest lake in Central Europe.

It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Germany's alpine glaciers are experiencing deglaciation.

Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.

Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate.

This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic.

Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: The east has a more continental climate: Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental.

In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.

Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row.

Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two. The recorded extremes are a maximum of The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches , oaks , and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.

Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil.

There are many species of ferns , flowers , fungi , and mosses. Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver.

In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves , as well as 98 nature parks. More than registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country.

Germany has a number of large cities. There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.

The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

The president , Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March —present , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.

He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.

The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident President of the Bundestag , who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.

The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag.

The chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.

Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.

The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.

In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.

The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.

The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively.

The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany has a low murder rate with 0.

Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer. Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary.

As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts.

Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains relations with more than countries. It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.

The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In , Chancellor Gerhard Schröder 's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.

As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.

In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.

But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.

As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.

Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.

In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption, [] and a high level of innovation.

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.

Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [] and is the fourth largest by production.

Of the world's largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in , the Fortune Global , 28 are headquartered in Germany. Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model.

More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.

The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.

Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.

Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant. Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy.

Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively.

Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.

Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.

The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [] with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.

Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.

Germany's most-visited landmarks include e. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.

With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.

The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.

Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad. After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.

The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler , followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.

In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.

As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions. Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust.

Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.

According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population [] are Buddhism with , adherents, Judaism with , adherents, and Hinduism with some , adherents.

All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers.

The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian. Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s, [] Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.

Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.

Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.

During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.

German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.

Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.

Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level. German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.

Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.

After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film. The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.

Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.

German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6.

Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.

For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe. Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm.

East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical.

Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic. German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.

Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 8 March Statistisches Bundesamt Destatis , Retrieved 8 June Evangelical Church of Germany.

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Archived PDF from the original on 22 March Retrieved 14 September Duden, Aussprachewörterbuch in German 6th ed. Zippelius, Reinhold []. The Lost German East.

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Volume 70 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 16 May The Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. In Bowman, Alan K. The Cambridge Ancient History: X, The Augustan Empire, 43 B.

Volume 10 2nd ed. Archived from the original on 23 December The crisis of empire, A. The Cambridge Ancient History.

The Roman Empire and its Germanic Peoples. Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to Benedict XVI. The Great Famine — and the Black Death — Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 19 March The printing press as an agent of change.

Cambridge University Press, pp. The Savage Wars of Peace: England, Japan and the Malthusian Trap. A History of Eastern Europe: Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 26 March The Guardian News and Media Limited.

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The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40, years old. Evidence of modern humans, similarly dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm.

The finds include 42,year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments ever found, [16] the 40,year-old Ice Age Lion Man which is the oldest uncontested figurative art ever discovered, [17] and the 35,year-old Venus of Hohle Fels which is the oldest uncontested human figurative art ever discovered.

However, Austria , Baden Württemberg , southern Bavaria , southern Hessen and the western Rhineland had been conquered and incorporated into Roman provinces: In the 3rd century a number of large West Germanic tribes emerged: Around , the Germanic peoples broke into Roman-controlled lands.

Simultaneously several large tribes formed in what is now Germany and displaced or absorbed smaller Germanic tribes.

Large areas known since the Merovingian period as Austrasia , Neustria , and Aquitaine were conquered by the Franks who established the Frankish Kingdom , and pushed farther east to subjugate Saxony and Bavaria.

Areas of what is today the eastern part of Germany were inhabited by Western Slavic tribes of Sorbs , Veleti and the Obotritic confederation. In , the Frankish king Charlemagne was crowned emperor and founded the Carolingian Empire , which was later divided in among his heirs.

The Holy Roman Empire absorbed northern Italy and Burgundy under the reign of the Salian emperors — , although the emperors lost power through the Investiture Controversy.

In the 12th century, under the Hohenstaufen emperors — , German princes increased their influence further south and east into territories inhabited by Slavs ; they encouraged German settlement in these areas, called the eastern settlement movement Ostsiedlung.

Members of the Hanseatic League , which included mostly north German cities and towns, prospered in the expansion of trade.

The edict of the Golden Bull issued in by Emperor Charles IV provided the basic constitutional structure of the Empire and codified the election of the emperor by seven prince-electors who ruled some of the most powerful principalities and archbishoprics.

Population declined in the first half of the 14th century, starting with the Great Famine in , followed by the Black Death of — Artistic and cultural centres throughout the German states produced such artists as the Augsburg painters Hans Holbein and his son , and Albrecht Dürer.

Johannes Gutenberg introduced moveable-type printing to Europe, a development that laid the basis for the spread of learning to the masses.

In , the Peace of Augsburg established Lutheranism as an acceptable alternative to Catholicism, but also decreed that the faith of the prince was to be the faith of his subjects, a principle called Cuius regio, eius religio.

The agreement at Augsburg failed to address other religious creed: In the 18th century, the Holy Roman Empire consisted of approximately 1, territories.

Having no male heirs, he had convinced the Electors to retain Habsburg hegemony in the office of the emperor by agreeing to the Pragmatic Sanction.

From , the dualism between the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy and the Kingdom of Prussia dominated the German history.

In , then again in and , the two dominant German states of Prussia and Austria, along with the Russian Empire , agreed to the Partitions of Poland ; dividing among themselves the lands of the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth.

As a result of the partitions, millions of Polish speaking inhabitants fell under the rule of the two German monarchies.

However, the annexed territories though incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia and the Habsburg Realm, were not legally considered as a part of the Holy Roman Empire.

In the Imperium was dissolved; many German states, particularly the Rhineland states , fell under the influence of France.

Following the fall of Napoleon , the Congress of Vienna convened in founded the German Confederation Deutscher Bund , a loose league of 39 sovereign states.

The appointment of the Emperor of Austria as the permanent president of the Confederation reflected the Congress's failure to accept Prussia's rising influence among the German states, and acerbated the long-standing competition between the Hohenzollern and Habsburg interests.

Disagreement within restoration politics partly led to the rise of liberal movements, followed by new measures of repression by Austrian statesman Metternich.

The Zollverein , a tariff union, furthered economic unity in the German states. The Hambach Festival in May was a main event in support of German unity , freedom and democracy.

In the light of a series of revolutionary movements in Europe , which established a republic in France , intellectuals and commoners started the Revolutions of in the German states.

King Frederick William IV of Prussia was offered the title of Emperor, but with a loss of power; he rejected the crown and the proposed constitution, leading to a temporary setback for the movement.

Bismarck successfully concluded war on Denmark in , which promoted German over Danish interests in the Jutland peninsula. The subsequent and decisive Prussian victory in the Austro-Prussian War of enabled him to create the North German Confederation Norddeutscher Bund which excluded Austria from the federation's affairs.

After the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War , the German princes proclaimed the founding of the German Empire in at Versailles , uniting all the scattered parts of Germany except Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland.

Prussia was the dominant constituent state of the new empire; the Hohenzollern King of Prussia ruled as its concurrent Emperor, and Berlin became its capital.

In the Gründerzeit period following the unification of Germany , Bismarck's foreign policy as Chancellor of Germany under Emperor William I secured Germany's position as a great nation by forging alliances, isolating France by diplomatic means, and avoiding war.

Under Wilhelm II , Germany, like other European powers, took an imperialistic course, leading to friction with neighbouring countries. Most alliances in which Germany had previously been involved were not renewed.

This resulted in creation of a dual alliance with the multinational realm of Austria-Hungary , promoting at least benevolent neutrality if not outright military support.

Similarly, Britain, France and Russia also concluded alliances that would protect them against Habsburg interference with Russian interests in the Balkans or German interference against France.

In what became known as the "First Genocide of the Twentieth-Century", between and , the German colonial government in South West Africa present-day Namibia ordered the annihilation of the local Herero and Namaqua peoples , as a punitive measure for an uprising against German colonial rule.

After four years of warfare, in which approximately two million German soldiers were killed, [46] a general armistice ended the fighting on 11 November, and German troops returned home.

Germany's new political leadership signed the Treaty of Versailles in In this treaty, Germany, as part of the Central Powers , accepted defeat by the Allies in one of the bloodiest conflicts of all time.

Germans perceived the treaty as humiliating and unjust and it was later seen by historians as influential in the rise of Adolf Hitler. Germany was declared a republic at the beginning of the German Revolution in November It was supported by parts of the Reichswehr military and other conservative, nationalistic and monarchist factions.

After a tumultuous period of bloody street fighting in the major industrial centres, the occupation of the Ruhr by Belgian and French troops and the rise of inflation culminating in the hyperinflation of —23 , a debt restructuring plan and the creation of a new currency in ushered in the Golden Twenties , an era of increasing artistic innovation and liberal cultural life.

Historians describe the period between and as one of "partial stabilisation. After the federal election of , Chancellor Heinrich Brüning 's government was enabled by President Paul von Hindenburg to act without parliamentary approval.

The Nazi Party led by Adolf Hitler won the special federal election of After a series of unsuccessful cabinets, Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor of Germany on 30 January Using deficit spending, a government-sponsored programme for economic renewal focused on public works projects.

In public work projects of , 1. In , the regime withdrew from the Treaty of Versailles and introduced the Nuremberg Laws which targeted Jews and other minorities.

Germany also reacquired control of the Saar in , [62] remilitarised the Rhineland in , annexed Austria in , annexed the Sudetenland in with the Munich Agreement and in direct violation of the agreement occupied Czechoslovakia with the proclamation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March Kristallnacht , or the "Night of Broken Glass", saw the burning of hundreds of synagogues, the destruction of thousands of Jewish businesses, and the arrest of around 30, Jewish men by Nazi forces inside Germany.

Many Jewish women were arrested and placed in jails and a curfew was placed on the Jewish people in Germany.

In August , Hitler's government negotiated and signed the Molotov—Ribbentrop pact that divided Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence.

In response to Hitler's actions, two days later, on 3 September, after a British ultimatum to Germany to cease military operations was ignored, Britain and France declared war on Germany.

The British repelled German air attacks in the Battle of Britain in the same year. By , Germany and other Axis powers controlled most of continental Europe and North Africa , but following the Soviet Union's victory at the Battle of Stalingrad , the allies' reconquest of North Africa and invasion of Italy in , German forces suffered repeated military defeats.

By late , the Western allies had entered Germany despite one final German counter offensive in the Ardennes Forest.

In what later became known as The Holocaust , the German government persecuted minorities and used a network of concentration and death camps across Europe to conduct a genocide of what they considered to be inferior peoples.

In total, over 10 million civilians were systematically murdered, including 6 million Jews , between , and 1,, Romani , , persons with disabilities , thousands of Jehovah's Witnesses , thousands of homosexuals , and hundreds of thousands of members of the political and religious opposition from Germany, and occupied countries Nacht und Nebel.

Germany lost roughly one-quarter of its pre-war territory. After Germany surrendered, the Allies partitioned Berlin and Germany's remaining territory into four military occupation zones.

They were informally known as West Germany and East Germany. East Germany selected East Berlin as its capital, while West Germany chose Bonn as a provisional capital, to emphasise its stance that the two-state solution was an artificial and temporary status quo.

West Germany was established as a federal parliamentary republic with a " social market economy ". Starting in West Germany became a major recipient of reconstruction aid under the Marshall Plan and used this to rebuild its industry.

Under his and Ludwig Erhard 's leadership, the country enjoyed prolonged economic growth beginning in the early s, that became known as an " economic miracle " Wirtschaftswunder.

Although East Germany claimed to be a democracy, political power was exercised solely by leading members Politbüro of the communist-controlled Socialist Unity Party of Germany , supported by the Stasi , an immense secret service controlling many aspects of the society.

Gorbachov , Tear down this wall! Kennedy 's famous Ich bin ein Berliner speech of 26 June In summer , Hungary decided to dismantle the Iron Curtain and open the borders, causing the emigration of thousands of East Germans to West Germany via Hungary.

This had devastating effects on the GDR, where regular mass demonstrations received increasing support. The East German authorities eased the border restrictions, allowing East German citizens to travel to the West; originally intended to help retain East Germany as a state, the opening of the border actually led to an acceleration of the Wende reform process.

This culminated in the Two Plus Four Treaty a year later on 12 September , under which the four occupying powers renounced their rights under the Instrument of Surrender , and Germany regained full sovereignty.

This permitted German reunification on 3 October , with the accession of the five re-established states of the former GDR.

The united Germany is considered to be the enlarged continuation of the Federal Republic of Germany and not a successor state.

As such, it retained all of West Germany's memberships in international organisations. Among the major projects of the two Schröder legislatures was the Agenda to reform the labour market to become more flexible and reduce unemployment.

Since reunification, Germany has taken a more active role in the European Union. Together with its European partners Germany signed the Maastricht Treaty in , established the Eurozone in , and signed the Lisbon Treaty in In the elections , Angela Merkel became the first female chancellor of Germany as the leader of a grand coalition.

In , a liberal - conservative coalition under Merkel assumed leadership of the country. In , a grand coalition was established in a Third Merkel cabinet.

Among the major German political projects of the early 21st century are the advancement of European integration , the energy transition Energiewende for a sustainable energy supply, the " Debt Brake " for balanced budgets, measures to increase the fertility rate significantly pronatalism , and high-tech strategies for the future transition of the German economy, summarised as Industry 4.

Germany was affected by the European migrant crisis in as it became the final destination of choice for many asylum seekers from Africa and the Middle East entering the EU.

The country took in over a million refugees and migrants and developed a quota system which redistributed migrants around its federal states based on their tax income and existing population density.

Germany is in Western and Central Europe , with Denmark bordering to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria to the southeast, Switzerland to the south-southwest, France, Luxembourg and Belgium lie to the west, and the Netherlands to the northwest.

Germany is also bordered by the North Sea and, at the north-northeast, by the Baltic Sea. With Switzerland and Austria, Germany also shares a border on the fresh-water Lake Constance , the third largest lake in Central Europe.

It is the seventh largest country by area in Europe and the 64th largest in the world. Elevation ranges from the mountains of the Alps highest point: The forested uplands of central Germany and the lowlands of northern Germany lowest point: Germany's alpine glaciers are experiencing deglaciation.

Significant natural resources include iron ore, coal, potash , timber, lignite , uranium , copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land and water.

Most of Germany has a temperate seasonal climate dominated by humid westerly winds. The country is situated in between the oceanic Western European and the continental Eastern European climate.

This warmer water affects the areas bordering the North Sea; consequently in the northwest and the north the climate is oceanic.

Winters are cool and summers tend to be warm: The east has a more continental climate: Central and southern Germany are transition regions which vary from moderately oceanic to continental.

In addition to the maritime and continental climates that predominate over most of the country, the Alpine regions in the extreme south and, to a lesser degree, some areas of the Central German Uplands have a mountain climate, with lower temperatures and more precipitation.

Though the German climate is rarely extreme, there are occasional spikes of cold or heat. Winter temperatures can sometimes drop to two-digit negative temperatures for a few days in a row.

Conversely, summer can see periods of very high temperatures for a week or two. The recorded extremes are a maximum of The territory of Germany can be subdivided into two ecoregions: European-Mediterranean montane mixed forests and Northeast-Atlantic shelf marine.

Plants and animals include those generally common to Central Europe. Beeches , oaks , and other deciduous trees constitute one-third of the forests; conifers are increasing as a result of reforestation.

Spruce and fir trees predominate in the upper mountains, while pine and larch are found in sandy soil. There are many species of ferns , flowers , fungi , and mosses.

Wild animals include roe deer , wild boar , mouflon a subspecies of wild sheep , fox , badger , hare , and small numbers of the Eurasian beaver. In addition, there are 15 Biosphere Reserves , as well as 98 nature parks.

More than registered zoos and animal parks operate in Germany, which is believed to be the largest number in any country. Germany has a number of large cities.

There are 11 officially recognised metropolitan regions in Germany. The largest conurbation is the Rhine-Ruhr region Germany is a federal , parliamentary , representative democratic republic.

The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.

Amendments generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.

The president , Frank-Walter Steinmeier 19 March —present , is the head of state and invested primarily with representative responsibilities and powers.

He is elected by the Bundesversammlung federal convention , an institution consisting of the members of the Bundestag and an equal number of state delegates.

The second-highest official in the German order of precedence is the Bundestagspräsident President of the Bundestag , who is elected by the Bundestag and responsible for overseeing the daily sessions of the body.

The third-highest official and the head of government is the Chancellor, who is appointed by the Bundespräsident after being elected by the Bundestag.

The chancellor, Angela Merkel 22 November —present , is the head of government and exercises executive power through their Cabinet , similar to the role of a Prime Minister in other parliamentary democracies.

Federal legislative power is vested in the parliament consisting of the Bundestag Federal Diet and Bundesrat Federal Council , which together form the legislative body.

The Bundestag is elected through direct elections , by proportional representation mixed-member. So far every chancellor has been a member of one of these parties.

In the German federal election, , the right-wing populist Alternative for Germany gained enough votes to attain representation in the parliament for the first time.

The debt-to-GDP ratio of Germany had its peak in when it stood at Germany has a civil law system based on Roman law with some references to Germanic law.

The Bundesverfassungsgericht Federal Constitutional Court is the German Supreme Court responsible for constitutional matters, with power of judicial review.

Criminal and private laws are codified on the national level in the Strafgesetzbuch and the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch respectively.

The German penal system seeks the rehabilitation of the criminal and the protection of the public. Germany has a low murder rate with 0. Germany comprises sixteen federal states which are collectively referred to as Bundesländer.

Two of the states are city-states consisting of just one city: The state of Bremen consists of two cities that are separated from each other by the state of Lower Saxony: Because of the differences in size and population the subdivisions of the states vary.

As of [update] Germany is divided into districts Kreise at a municipal level; these consist of rural districts and urban districts. Germany has a network of diplomatic missions abroad [] and maintains relations with more than countries.

It has played an influential role in the European Union since its inception and has maintained a strong alliance with France and all neighbouring countries since Germany promotes the creation of a more unified European political, economic and security apparatus.

The development policy of Germany is an independent area of foreign policy. It is formulated by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development and carried out by the implementing organisations.

The German government sees development policy as a joint responsibility of the international community. In , Chancellor Gerhard Schröder 's government defined a new basis for German foreign policy by taking part in the NATO decisions surrounding the Kosovo War and by sending German troops into combat for the first time since In absolute terms, German military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world.

As of [update] the Bundeswehr employed roughly , service members, including about 9, volunteers. In peacetime, the Bundeswehr is commanded by the Minister of Defence.

In state of defence , the Chancellor would become commander-in-chief of the Bundeswehr. The role of the Bundeswehr is described in the Constitution of Germany as defensive only.

But after a ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court in the term "defence" has been defined to not only include protection of the borders of Germany, but also crisis reaction and conflict prevention, or more broadly as guarding the security of Germany anywhere in the world.

As of [update] , the German military has about 3, troops stationed in foreign countries as part of international peacekeeping forces, including about 1, supporting operations against Daesh , in the NATO-led Resolute Support Mission in Afghanistan, and in Kosovo.

Until , military service was compulsory for men at age 18, and conscripts served six-month tours of duty; conscientious objectors could instead opt for an equal length of Zivildienst civilian service , or a six-year commitment to voluntary emergency services like a fire department or the Red Cross.

In conscription was officially suspended and replaced with a voluntary service. Germany has a social market economy with a highly skilled labour force , a large capital stock , a low level of corruption, [] and a high level of innovation.

Germany is part of the European single market which represents more than million consumers. Several domestic commercial policies are determined by agreements among European Union EU members and by EU legislation.

Germany introduced the common European currency, the Euro in Its monetary policy is set by the European Central Bank , which is headquartered in Frankfurt , the financial centre of continental Europe.

Being home to the modern car , the automotive industry in Germany is regarded as one of the most competitive and innovative in the world, [] and is the fourth largest by production.

Of the world's largest stock-market-listed companies measured by revenue in , the Fortune Global , 28 are headquartered in Germany. Germany is recognised for its large portion of specialised small and medium enterprises , known as the Mittelstand model.

More than 1, of these companies are global market leaders in their segment and are labelled hidden champions.

The list includes the largest German companies by revenue in With its central position in Europe, Germany is a transport hub for the continent.

Germany has established a polycentric network of high-speed trains. Germany is committed to the Paris Agreement and several other treaties promoting biodiversity, low emission standards, water management , and the renewable energy commercialisation.

Germany is a global leader in science and technology as its achievements in the fields of science and technology have been significant. Research and development efforts form an integral part of the economy.

Albert Einstein introduced the special relativity and general relativity theories for light and gravity in and respectively. Along with Max Planck , he was instrumental in the introduction of quantum mechanics , in which Werner Heisenberg and Max Born later made major contributions.

Germany has been the home of many famous inventors and engineers , including Hans Geiger , the creator of the Geiger counter ; and Konrad Zuse , who built the first fully automatic digital computer.

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz 's work in the domain of electromagnetic radiation was pivotal to the development of modern telecommunication.

The Wendelstein 7-X in Greifswald hosts a facility in the research of fusion power for instance. Germany is the seventh most visited country in the world, [] with a total of million overnights during In , over Berlin has become the third most visited city destination in Europe.

Domestic and international travel and tourism combined directly contribute over EUR Including indirect and induced impacts, the industry contributes 4.

Germany's most-visited landmarks include e. The Europa-Park near Freiburg is Europe's second most popular theme park resort.

With a population of The overall life expectancy in Germany at birth is Four sizeable groups of people are referred to as "national minorities" because their ancestors have lived in their respective regions for centuries.

The Roma and Sinti live throughout the whole federal territory and the Frisians live on Schleswig-Holstein's western coast, and in the north-western part of Lower Saxony.

Approximately 5 million Germans live abroad. After the United States , Germany is the second most popular immigration destination in the world.

The Federal Statistical Office classifies the citizens by immigrant background. Regarding the immigrant background, In census, as people with immigrant background Personen mit Migrationshintergrund were counted all immigrants, including ethnic Germans that came to the federal republic or had at least one parent settling here after The largest part of people with immigrant background is made up of returning ethnic Germans Aussiedler and Spätaussiedler , followed by Turkish, European Union, and former Yugoslav citizens.

In the s and s, the German governments invited "guest workers" Gastarbeiter to migrate to Germany for work in the German industries.

Many companies preferred to keep these workers employed in Germany after they had trained them and Germany's immigrant population has steadily increased.

As of [update] , the largest national group was from Turkey 2,, , followed by Poland 1,, , Russia 1,, , and Italy , Upon its establishment in , Germany was about two-thirds Protestant [f] and one-third Roman Catholic , with a notable Jewish minority.

Other faiths existed in the state, but never achieved a demographic significance and cultural impact of these three confessions.

Germany lost nearly all of its Jewish minority during the Holocaust. Religious makeup changed gradually in the decades following , with West Germany becoming more religiously diversified through immigration and East Germany becoming overwhelmingly irreligious through state policies.

It continues to diversify after the German reunification in , with an accompanying substantial decline in religiosity throughout all of Germany and a contrasting increase of evangelical Protestants and Muslims.

Geographically, Protestantism is concentrated in the northern, central and eastern parts of the country. According to the German Census , Christianity is the largest religion in Germany, claiming Other religions accounted for 2.

According to the most recent data from , the Catholic Church and the Evangelical Church claimed respectively Islam is the second largest religion in the country.

Other religions comprising less than one per cent of Germany's population [] are Buddhism with , adherents, Judaism with , adherents, and Hinduism with some , adherents.

All other religious communities in Germany have fewer than 50, adherents each. German is the official and predominant spoken language in Germany.

To a lesser extent, it is also related to the North Germanic languages. Most German vocabulary is derived from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

German is written using the Latin alphabet. German dialects , traditional local varieties traced back to the Germanic tribes, are distinguished from varieties of standard German by their lexicon , phonology , and syntax.

German is the most widely spoken first language in the European Union , with around million native speakers. The most used immigrant languages are Turkish , Kurdish , Polish , the Balkan languages , and Russian.

Germans are typically multilingual: The Goethe-Institut is a non-profit German cultural association operational worldwide with institutes.

It is offering the study of the German language and encouraging global cultural exchange. Responsibility for educational supervision in Germany is primarily organised within the individual federal states.

Optional kindergarten education is provided for all children between three and six years old, after which school attendance is compulsory for at least nine years.

Primary education usually lasts for four to six years. A system of apprenticeship called Duale Ausbildung leads to a skilled qualification which is almost comparable to an academic degree.

It allows students in vocational training to learn in a company as well as in a state-run trade school. Most of the German universities are public institutions, and students traditionally study without fee payment.

However, there are a number of exceptions, depending on the state, the college and the subject. Tuition free academic education is open to international students and is increasingly common.

Germany has a long tradition of higher education. The established universities in Germany include some of the oldest in the world , with Heidelberg University established in being the oldest.

In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Germany's system of hospices, called spitals , dates from medieval times, and today, Germany has the world's oldest universal health care system, dating from Bismarck's social legislation of the s, [] Since the s, reforms and provisions have ensured a balanced health care system.

Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.

A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.

Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" , [] because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.

Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.

In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. German classical music includes works by some of the world's most well-known composers.

Dieterich Buxtehude composed oratorios for organ, which influenced the later work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Georg Friedrich Händel ; these men were influential composers of the Baroque period.

During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.

Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.

Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.

German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.

German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic. Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.

Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.

Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.

Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.

The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.

When industrialisation spread across Europe, Classicism and a distinctive style of historism developed in Germany, sometimes referred to as Gründerzeit style , due to the economical boom years at the end of the 19th century.

Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture.

German artists, writers and gallerists like Siegfried Bing , Georg Hirth and Bruno Möhring also contributed to the development of Art Nouveau at the turn of the 20th century, known as Jugendstil in German.

Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.

Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe became one of the world's most renowned architects in the second half of the 20th century. German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.

The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.

German philosophy is historically significant: Gottfried Leibniz 's contributions to rationalism ; the enlightenment philosophy by Immanuel Kant ; the establishment of classical German idealism by Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling ; Arthur Schopenhauer 's composition of metaphysical pessimism; the formulation of communist theory by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ; Friedrich Nietzsche 's development of perspectivism ; Gottlob Frege 's contributions to the dawn of analytic philosophy ; Martin Heidegger 's works on Being; Oswald Spengler 's historical philosophy; the development of the Frankfurt School by Max Horkheimer , Theodor Adorno , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas have been particularly influential.

Many of Europe's best-selling newspapers and magazines are produced in Germany. The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world.

German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film. The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in Director Fritz Lang 's Metropolis is referred to as the first major science-fiction film.

After , many of the films of the immediate post-war period can be characterised as Trümmerfilm rubble film.

The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.

One of the most successful German movie series of the s included the sex reports called Schulmädchen-Report Schoolgirl Report.

Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. The Berlin International Film Festival , known as "Berlinale", awarding the " Golden Bear " and held annually since , is one of the world's leading film festivals.

German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e. International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular.

Bread is a significant part of German cuisine and German bakeries produce about main types of bread and 1, different types of pastries and rolls Brötchen.

German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe. Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts.

Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions , [] the national alcoholic drink is beer.

The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.

Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6.

Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.

Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.

Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].

The driver Michael Schumacher has set many motor sport records during his career, having won seven Formula One World Drivers' Championships , more than any other.

He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.

Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.

Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.

Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. Munich, Hamburg, Cologne and Düsseldorf are also important design, production and trade hubs of the domestic fashion industry, among smaller towns.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.

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Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.

History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.

Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.

Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.

German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.

Germany portal Europe portal. Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Bundesrepubliek Düütschland Upper Sorbian: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.

There were also unions in other smaller German states happening independent of each other. The tax rate is eight percent of income tax and certain other taxes in Bavaria and nine percent in other states; in most cases the tax is collected by the state and in other cases data on church members' income is shared.

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Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. England has not won a major title, their best result being Euro runners up in women's Euro and in Euro Meanwhile, Germany's women have won two World Cups, and , [31] and a total of eight European Championships in the years of , , , , , , and Together with the three Euro wins and the four World Cup wins of the men's team, Germany counts 17 major tournament titles, while England has one major tournament title so far.

Since World War II , Britain has considered itself a rival to Germany in many areas, such as automobile production , naval forces , trade and economy [35] —this rivalry has also permeated into football.

English football fans often deem Germany to be their traditional football rival and care more about this rivalry than those with other countries, such as Scotland or Argentina.

In the run-up to any football match against Germany, many English tabloids publish articles that contain references to the Second World War, such as calling their opposition derogatory terms such as " krauts " or " hun ".

England's defeat of Germany in the World Cup has been often voted by the English as their greatest ever sporting moment, [41] and the 5—1 victory in has also regularly placed highly.

As far back as the s, the footballing rivalry between England and Germany has been considered mainly an English phenomenon; this has been observed by several commentators of both English and German origin.

In June , British comedian Stephen Fry stated on the BBC show QI that, unlike the English, German football fans do not care about their team's loss at the World Cup final and may not even remember that they had made it that far.

Instead, German fans consider their rivalry with the Netherlands to be their traditional footballing rivalry and care more about the matches against them, such as the FIFA World Cup final.

Following their 5—1 loss in , many German fans were not particularly concerned, instead revelling in the Netherlands ' defeat by the Republic of Ireland the same day.

Some sang directly after the loss to England: In , during the lead-up to World Cup match, journalist Marina Hyde remarked in The Guardian that the rivalry between the England and Germany football teams was "quite obviously an illusion, existing only in the minds of those wishful to the point of insanity — which is to say, the English".

Beck described Germany's ambivalence to the rivalry, saying that "as far as the Germans are concerned, Sunday's game is nothing more than another sporting contest".

However, it would of course also be false to say that there is no rivalry at all between Germany and England; for one thing, the very fact that the English perceive it to be such cannot go unnoticed, for another, there is the long-standing quarrel about the " Wembley goal " only somewhat silenced since a clear goal was not awarded to the English in England matches, even friendlies, are always considered highly important sporting events though of course, the tradition and, usually, the quality of both the teams may account for most of that , going so far that a popular radioplay series mocks people in love as "looking deep into each other's eyes even if a Germany vs.

England match is on TV". Also, different flags were applied:. England played four Friendly matches against the East Germany national football team which was fielded by the DFV in the German Democratic Republic which existed from to As well as the rivalry between the national sides, English and German club teams have also met on numerous occasions in the various European club competitions.

Having recently missed out on the Bundesliga title to their rivals Borussia Dortmund , Bayern Munich suffered defeat at the Allianz Arena ; a game dubbed "Finale dahoam" Bavarian for "final at home" as it marked the second time that any team played the tournament's final at their home ground.

The game [51] ended as a 1—1 draw after added extra time aet before being decided 4—3 on penalties. Bayern Munich seemed like the more dominant of the two sides throughout, but a criticised [52] [53] Chelsea defence "parked the bus" , preventing many chances which eventually lead to their first Champions League win.

Perhaps the most noteworthy encounter was the UEFA Champions League Final between Manchester United and Bayern Munich, during which the English club were trailing 1—0 until injury time, then scoring two goals to win 2—1.

This result was celebrated by many in England who were not United fans as being another English victory over Germany. Leeds would eventually eliminate a German team VfB Stuttgart in unexpected and bizarre circumstances.

After the Germans had qualified, in the first round of the —93 competition, on the away goals rule, the return leg was awarded by UEFA 3—0 to Leeds United because Stuttgart fielded an extra foreigner, thus infringing the European competition rules that were in place at the time.

A replay was ordered as the aggregate stood at 3—3. Leeds won the replay at Barcelona 's Camp Nou 2—1. In , a young and depleted Leeds United side, managed by David O'Leary , eliminated Munich from the Champions League beating them home and away in the preliminary round before reaching the semi-final.

These were against the likes of Borussia Mönchengladbach , 1. Liverpool's win against Borussia Mönchengladbach in Rome stands out for one special reason.

It started a sequence of six consecutive English European Cup victories each time involving the elimination of a German club in the latter stages.

The English hold the upper hand in club football encounters, although there were notable German wins such as Bayern's revenge over Manchester United F.

Both English sides exacted revenge over Leverkusen in subsequent Champions League encounters. Borussia Dortmund beat Manchester United 1—0 both home and away in the semifinal of the —97 UEFA Champions League which they won, United having been guilty of squandering numerous chances in both legs, especially the return leg at Old Trafford.

English club victories were often celebrated in a manner which evoked memories of the War. The outspoken Brian Clough is on record boasting that he never lost to a German side and that he took satisfaction from this for what the Germans had done to his father during the war.

Clough memorably led Nottingham Forest to a 1—0 win in Cologne following a spectacular 3—3 draw at the City Ground in the semifinal en route to Forest winning their first European Cup.

The following year, a Forest side minus star player, Trevor Francis , defeated Hamburg in the final by employing an Italian style catenaccio based on dogged defence and brilliant goalkeeping by Peter Shilton.

Liverpool have a tremendous record against German opposition, from both sides of the East-West divide, and once famously hit Munich 8—0 in an old Fairs Cup game, a treatment meted out to Hamburg 6—0 when winning the first of their three European Super Cups, the second also against German opposition in the form of FC Bayern Munich.

Liverpool's encounters with Bayern and Borussia Mönchengladbach known in Germany as the Gladbacher , the latter a force to be reckoned with in the 70s, are memorable.

Bayern had hit Coventry City for six in a previous round. Liverpool won the first leg 3—0 with an Alun Evans hat-trick and drew 1—1 in Munich.

The most important encounter between the two sides was in the European Cup semi-final of when a depleted Liverpool were held to a goalless draw at Anfield and then drew 1—1 in Munich.

They scored in the 83rd minute with a Ray Kennedy goal at the Olympia Stadion in Munich before Karl-Heinz Rummenigge equalised in the 88th minute to preserve Bayern's then unbeaten home record against English opposition, even though Liverpool went through to win their third European Cup final.

The great Günter Netzer , now a pundit on German television, and midfield forager, Herbert Wimmer , played for Mönchengladbach in the encounters with Everton and the Cup final against Liverpool, then managed by Bill Shankly.

Borussia would eliminate an English club in en route to winning the UEFA Cup for the second time in their history. The English club was Manchester City whose manager, Malcolm Allison , had taken over a few months earlier from Tony Book and dismantled what seemed, in the earlier rounds, to be a star-studded side, to blood young wannabes.

There were memorable encounters in the other European competitions. The UEFA Cup, which became a strong competition in the late seventies, eighties and 90s, before being devalued in recent years, threw up some wonderful Anglo-German encounters, among the most memorable of which would be Ipswich Town 's victories both home and away over 1.

FC Köln in the semifinal of the competition which they won, Tottenham Hotspur 's 5—1 aggregate mauling of Cologne in the competition and defeat of Bayern ten years later when winning the competition for the second time, debutant Watford 's comeback against Kaiserslautern in the first round of the —84 competition, Bayern's thrashing of Nottingham Forest F.

Nottingham Forest 7—2 on aggregate — after Forest had held Bayern to a 1—1 draw in the first leg in Munich — in en route to winning the cup, debutant Norwich City 's win at the Olympia Stadion in Munich before ousting Bayern at Carrow Road in and Kaiserlautern's final minutes turn around against Tottenham Hotspur, managed by George Graham , in More recently, in Hamburg eliminated Manchester City who had earlier in the campaign beaten Schalke in Germany, a team they also beat 5—1 in the quarter finals of the European Cup Winners' Cup which City went on to win.

The English hold the upper hand even in these competitions. There were however some narrow escapes.

The Reds hung on in the second half. In , Queens Park Rangers , also making their debut, with Stan Bowles , Dave Thomas and Don Givens in their ranks, took a 3—0 lead to the Mungersdorfer Stadion in Cologne and increased their lead there only for the Germans to storm back with four goals and miss out on qualification on the away goals rule.

There were also many encounters between English league sides and clubs from the DDR which mostly ended in favour of the English sides, although these confrontations were less spectacular than those involving clubs from West Germany.

Newport County , then from the English third division but representing Wales in the European Cup Winners' Cup in , went tantalisingly close to eliminating Carl Zeiss Jena after a 2—2 draw in East Germany but lost 0—1 in the home leg after a blinding display by the East German keeper Hans-Ulrich Grapenthin.

Jena made it to the final where they lost to Dynamo Tbilisi of Georgia , then part of the Soviet Union. Liverpool had three confrontations with Dynamo Dresden which they all won, including a splendid 5—1 performance at Anfield in the second round of the European Cup competition.

Forest, the European Cup holders, had a mountain to climb to hold on to the trophy, having lost the first leg at the City Ground 0—1 to a goal by Hans-Jürgen Riediger.

They managed to register another victory 1—0 on English soil in the return leg only to be ousted on the away goal rule by Villa who went on to keep the European Cup in England for a sixth consecutive year, beating FC Bayern Munich in the Rotterdam final.

Forest cast-away, Peter Withe , scored the only goal of the game against the run of play. For most of the second half, Bayern were camped inside the Villa half, hit the woodwork, went tantaisingly close on a number of occasions but found substitute rookie goalkeeper, Nigel Spink who replaced veteran Jimmy Rimmer after only a few minutes , in inspiring form.

The rivalry between the two nations has not prevented their respective nationals from playing in each other's domestic leagues, in certain cases to high renown.

Klinsmann was voted the same accolade in while playing for Tottenham, where he pioneered the ' diving ' goal celebration.

Owen Hargreaves played for Bayern Munich for seven seasons before transferring to Manchester United in Keegan was twice European Footballer of the Year and a European Cup finalist during his time at Hamburg, where the German public nicknamed him "Mighty Mouse", after a cartoon hero, because of his prolific scoring, his height or lack thereof , his high level of mobility, and his ability to turn sharply and often while running at high speed.

Woodcock was also a popular figure at Cologne. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from England and Germany football rivalry.

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July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Friendly match between England and Germany at Wembley Stadium. England and Germany have played 30 official matches against each other since Retrieved 25 November Retrieved 29 May Retrieved 28 March Retrieved 30 May Proceedings of the 4th European Conference on Computer Vision.

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Retrieved 2 June Retrieved 14 September News of the World. Vinnie Jones 19 January Whatever Happened to the Likely Lads?

Long history of being just a bit beastly". Retrieved 15 September Stephen Fry 15 January Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 25 May One-sided rivalry remains football's grand illusion".

Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original on 28 June Archived from the original on 14 May England national football team. British Home Championship — Minor tournaments.

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European football international rivalries. Retrieved from " https: Archived copy as title Use dmy dates from March Articles that may contain original research from July All articles that may contain original research All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from October Articles with unsourced statements from June Views Read Edit View history.

This page was last edited on 3 November , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. German team included Austrian players as a result of the Anschluss.

German teams were still banned as a result of World War II. In the final qualifying round effectively a quarter final West Germany defeated England 3—1 on aggregate.

England and Germany were placed in the same first round group. Both were eliminated, with England finishing third and Germany fourth.

England defeated Germany 1—0, in the match between the two teams. England and Germany were placed in the same qualifying group.

Germany won 1—0 at Wembley, while England won 5—1 in Munich. England famously lost in the Round of 16 to Iceland. Germany may beat us at our national sport today, but that would be only fair.

We beat them twice at theirs.

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